HPI’s 2019 Washi Tour by Yukako Ando

Above, the Yoshino river, with its pebbled edges, flows elegantly through Nara, where our Uda Gami and Nara Natural Dyed paper series are made. (pic: Yukako Ando)
Every two years, Hiromi Paper staff lead a tour through Japan visiting papermakers, toolmakers, and conservationists to gain further understanding of the world of Washi. The tour is heavily focused on conservation, thus we visit mostly the artisans who are producing papers used for conservation and restoration. As usual, the tour began in Kyoto, then traveled on a chartered bus through Japan visiting prefectures like Kochi, Shimane, Fukui, Gifu, and Nara. Participants stay in nearby accommodations and eat what is locally available. During the tour the artisans show how they are making the papers that many of our customers have come to know so well. Here, HPI staff Yuka presents what she saw and what she heard during this year’s tour.

Washi was not made in the summer because the tororoaoi (neri) would lose its viscosity…

In a lightly air-conditioned traditional Japanese house, with the back and forth motion of rocking the suketa (papermaking mould), traditional handmade Japanese paper is made.

IMG_8417_Kozo Furuta studio
The preserved studio of the late Kozo Furuta, one of Japan’s legendary papermakers. Located in Mino, one of Furuta’s former students, Kiyoko Urabe now makes paper in her own studio adjacent to this historical landmark. Furuta was also a teacher to Hiromi, propietress of Hiromi Paper, and Satoshi Hasegawa, maker of the Usu Gami series among many other splendid papers.

The light that shines through the studio windows are ever so warm and subtle, glistening on the water surface. The well water is cold to the touch. Inside the vat are the soft kozo fibers, floating in a solution of tororoaoi and water. The papermaking studios are quiet and calming, and draws us in.

Contrary to the stillness of the studio, the scorching sun continues to heat up the outdoors, with an uncontrollable amount of sweat rushing out. This year’s Hiromi Paper Washi Tour took place in the lingering summer heat, for seven days in the beginning of September. We visited six regions, twelve studios, and four paper museums.

 

 

IMG_7513_Toolmaker Mr.Yamamoto
For more than 70 years, Mr. Yamamoto is known for his dextrous hands that make and repair traditional Suketa (papermaking moulds). Here he shows the company of the tour how he precisely weaves together with silk, the fine strips of bamboo that form the screen. Like papermakers, toolmakers are on the decline. Waitlists for the renown toolmaker’s services can last many months. 

The hot summertime is an ideal time for papermakers to accept visitors, due to the lack of papermaking work (papermaking is primarily done in the cold months), but the participants and Hiromi Paper staff felt as if we were all on a summer camp, battling the heat and humidity, unique to Japanese summers.

Upon visiting six different regions and twelve studios, I realized that there were various styles in papermaking. The preparation work, materials used, how the suketa (papermaking screen/mould) is moved, how the papers are dried, are all a bit different depending on the region. Due to this slight variation, it’s not possible to simply group “washi” into one category.

Each papermaker or region’s unique papermaking style has been passed down for generations and will be passed onto future generations as well.

 

 

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Aki-chan, working at the large-size papermaker Iwano Paper Mill for most of her life.
IMG_8050_Ichibei Iwano_National Living Tresure_Kizuki Hosho
Ichibei Iwano (NO relation to the Iwano Paper mill which produces large size papers), Echizen Washi’s National Living Treasure, making only one type of paper (Kizuki Hosho) for generations and generations. Kizuki Hosho is a beloved woodblock printing paper that is highly sought-after.

THE YOUNG GENERATION ALSO HARD AT WORK

IMG_7245_Tencho papermaker_Osamu Hamada
The first papermaker we visited was young but highly skilled papermaker Osamu Hamada of Hamadawashi founded by his grandfather the late National Living Treasure, Sajio Hamada. Here Osamu san demonstrates how Tengucho (extremely light weight paper) is made. Tengucho requires very rapid techniques when forming sheets in the suketa leading to a beautiful display of splashing water and pulp.
IMG_7863_Iwano Paper Mill_Large-sie paper making
At Iwano papermill, two young papermakers demonstrate the sort of “dance” that is required to create their large handmade sheets. Due to the size that they are famous for, Iwano papers requires two papermakers working in tandem, intuiting each others movements, to produce consistent, beautiful papers.
IMG_8112_Masami Igarashi_Large-size papermaker
Masami Igarashi, maker of Igarashi Kozo, some of the largest handmade papers in the world, leads the party through her family’s papermill. Igarashi Kozo can be made up to sizes 2.5mx7m.

IN BETWEEN THE OLD AND YOUNG GENERATION ARE: Hiroyoshi Chinzei of Hidaka Washi, Kiyoko Urabe making Usu Mino paper, Masayuki Fukunishi of Uda-gami, Uekubo san of Hon Misu gami, and Norimasa Abe making Izumo Mingei paper.

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Hiroyoshi Chinzei from Hidakawashi shows the tour participants the cooking of stripped bark. It is the cooking process which depletes the lignin from the fibers, bringing them to archival standards. Hidakawashi is responsible for the world’s thinnest paper with some weights as low as 1.6gsm!
IMG_8364_Kiyoko Urabe_Usu-Mino papermaker
Kiyoko Urabe was once the student of Kozo Furuta, making Usu Mino papers.
IMG_8569_Masayuki Fukunishi_Uda-gami
Masayuki Fukinishi of Uda Gami. Kozo fibers for Uda Gami are treated with clay, which prevent the paper from stretching or shrinking when exposed to heat or moisture. 
IMG_8708_Hisako Uekubo_Hon-misu papermaker_drying method called “subuse”
Here, Uekubo san of Hon Misu gami is seen making Hon Misu. Kozo fibers for Hon Misu are treated with gofun–incinerated sea shell dust–which helps keep the paper from stretching or shrinking when exposed to heat or moisture. Unusually, because of the gofun treatment, the papers are transferred directly from the su (screen) to the drying board, skipping the pressing process that wrings out excess water. This is because if pressure is applied to a stack of Uda Gami sheets, they will not compress to let out water, making this step unnecessary. This omission of the pressing step is called subuse.
IMG_7608_Izumo Mingei_Norimasa Abe studio_making indigo dyed paper
Izumo Mingeishi, founded by the late and first papermaker to be designated a National Living Treasure, Eishiro Abe, produces some of the most exquisite shimmering Mitsumata papers. Here his grandson, Norimasa Abe, demonstrates the creation of Izumo Mingei Mitsumata Indigo, one of the most sought after colors from the Izumo Mingei Mitsumata collection. In front of him is a stack of freshly made sheets, each separated by merely a piece of thread.

I don’t want to reveal what the subtle differences in papermaking styles are just yet, but perhaps you’d like to consider finding out for yourself on the next Washi Tour…?

Supported by the presence of beautiful mountains and natural water, there is great significance and depth in the traditions of papermaking, passed down from generations past. To meet the people that make the papers and to learn about the backstory is helpful in becoming one step closer to washi. I am grateful to all of the papermakers and craftsmen that I met throughout the tour, and wish them all the best in their future endeavors.

IMG_8873_Bokusendo with Mr. Sekichi
The final stop was Conservation Studio Bokusendo. Mr. Sekichi shows preparation for a new restoration project.
IMG_8848_Mr Sekichi shows Furunori_Bokusendo
Underneath the floorboards at Studio Bokusendo, are pots of aged Jin Shofu (wheat paste). Periodically, staff will uncover the pots and scrape off any mold that has accumulated on the surface. The aging process diminishes the stickiness of paste making it perfect for more delicate procedures. Bokusendo does not sell aged Jin Shofu, but you can make it at home. You better start now, though, because some of the aged Jin Shofu dates back to more than TEN YEARS!

Washi Tour Route: Tosa Washi Museum / Hamada Washi (handmade Tengucho) / Hidaka
Washi (machine-made Tengucho) / Mr. Yamaomto (Japanese papermaking tool maker) /
SHIMANE: Abe Eishiro Memorial Hall / Shinichiro and Norimasa Abe (Izumo Mingei
papermaker) / Otaki Shrine (Paper shrine) / Iwano Paper Mill (large-sie handmade papermaker)/ Yamaki Seishi (Gampi papermaker) / Ichibei Iwano (National Living Treasure) / Igarashi Paper Mill (large-size handmade papermaker) / Kiyoko Urabe (Usu Mino papermaker) / Mino Washi Museum / Masayuki Fukunishi (Yoshino Uda-gami papermaker) / Ryoji Uekubo (Hon Misu papermaker) / Mr. Sekichi of Bokusendo (Conservation studio)

For more information about our Biannual Washi Tour, email washi@hiromipaper.com.

ALL IMAGES ARE COPYRIGHT HIROMI PAPER, INC. For use of images you can inquire at washi@hiromipaper.com. All photos taken by Yukako Ando.

In Memory of Artist Akira Kurosaki

Kurosaki portrait
Akira Kurosaki, picture from his book, Shaping Paper
[featured image above is a detail of Kurosaki’s work Atlantic Splashes from 1993]

Akira Kurosaki was born on January 10, 1937 in Manchuria, China, but his family returned to Japan shortly after the Second World War. While a teen, Kurosaki sensei’s father arranged for him to learn painting. It would be his father later who forbade him from pursuing painting as a course of study as he believed art to be financially unstable. With his father’s ruling, Kurosaki sensei studied Design at Kyoto Institute of Technology from which he graduated in 1962. Despite the conflict with his father’s interests, Kurosaki sensei emerged from academia yet an artist.

 

It wasn’t long before Kurosaki sensei became an associate professor at his alma mater, Kyoto Institute of Technology, where he remained until 1968. During his initial stint as professor Kurosaki sensei began creating the first of his abstract and surreal works. These works used the guise of western modes of painting that were in fashion at the time, to create artworks that would explore the psychology of traditions and ideologies of postwar humanity. Navigating printmaking, painting, collage, and eventually papermaking, Kurosaki sensei embarked on a trajectory that would help him carve a career as an innovative artist.

akira kurosaki sagittarius 1973
Sagittarius 1973 color woodblock

In 1987, Kurosaki sensei became professor and head of Printmaking at Kyoto Seika University where he established the department of papermaking. His pioneering work in papermaking art was the catalyst that helped bring papermaking into the realm of fine art, producing works throughout his career and especially the 90s that were simultaneously print and paper. Employing innovative and traditional techniques Kurosaki sensei would often require new or modified tools or designs of his own fashioning to create works.

 

One of his inventions might be familiar to you– in this excerpt, translated by Yuki, Kurosaki sensei writes in his book Shaping Paper, about the purpose behind the development of the Disk Baren:

     As one of the most important tools used in mokuhanga printmaking, high quality barens have a long life span, but on the other hand can be difficult replacing the expendable bamboo sheath core of the baren.
     Wanting a baren that was easier to maintain but still retained the
technical quality of the traditional baren, the disk baren was invented.
     By making a baren out of plastic materials, the quality control is more consistent, parts are easier to replace/repair and the price is more economical.
     The traditional baren core is made from white bamboo sheaths that are twisted then laid down into a circular shape. These sheaths create the bumps which are important in a baren to evenly press the paper into the block . The disk baren accurately recreates these bumps with its plastic core. If the surface begins to wear down, there are replacement disks available.
     Though the plastic core may look simple to the eye, the final product was achieved through many trials and errors to best resemble the texture and composition of the traditional bamboo cores. Although the bumps are laid in a concentric circular pattern, they are not radial but form subtle waves that help to apply even pressure when in use.
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Bottom of the Disk Baren showing the wavy pattern of the balls

Kurosaki sensei was never one to be held back by lack of capability, nor was he compelled by the impulse to profit. Rather, the sensei’s concerns about the traditional baren stemmed from its impractical inherent qualities–they were inaccessible to most, expensive, and oftentimes burdensome to fix or replace parts. Knowing this, Kurosaki sensei reimagined how the process produced by the baren could be recreated using more accessible means without sacrificing, as he said, “the technical” qualities that make barens so important to mokuhanga. After much testing and consideration for the ability of his new tool, the Disk Baren came to be. Kurosaki sensei showed much respect not only to his own ways of making work but also the way in which those types of work had been made for centuries before him.

 

For years, Kurosaki sensei traveled the world making art, lecturing, and exhibiting, carving for himself a singular career. Finally, though, he settled back down in his hometown of Kyoto, where he passed in May. Our thoughts and best wishes are with Kurosaki sensei’s loved ones.

Kurosaki 1
Green Wind Vane 1991 paper and dye

Book Artist Martine Patoux Interns at Tesuki Washi Tanino

I have been working on and with paper for a long time. I test different techniques with paper to actualize artists’ books often wondering about the life of paper. Washi, one of the most “living” papers, is so generous and amazing, lending itself to my purpose as a bookmaker.

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Examining the delicate strength of thin washi (pic: M. Patoux)

I wondered, how can I approach paper as a “living” thing so that I can imbue part of me into it. How can I be part of the life of the paper? How can I participate in animating the life of a paper?

Martine Toki River
Toki River running adjacent to Tesuki Washi Tanino (pic: M. Patoux)

I set out to find a workshop in Japan that would welcome me for 3 months, where I could immerse myself in papermaking, from harvesting the fibers to forming and drying the sheets.

 

martine stripping bark
Freshly steamed bark being stripped of the outer layers (pic: M. Patoux)

Mrs. Hiroko Tanino, Washi Master, Tokigawa (Saitama prefecture), opened her doors and welcomed me. We share a love of a paper and the surprises that arise in any situation. We see the beauty of the washi-maker transfer into the beauty of the washi they make. Mrs. and Mr Tanino are both passionate handcrafters working tirelessly to preserve handmade papermaking, as such, they are welcome to ideas and proposals presented to them!

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Tanino san (left) helping with the kozo harvest (pic: Hiroko Tanino)

My project became to make a book from Washi that was also about Washi, where the texts would be haiku. Through my new experience, Mrs. and Mr. Tanino guided me with their know-how.

martine experiments
Washi making experiments (pic: M. Patoux)

Although I am not able to make a perfect sheet of washi, I discovered the infinite potential offered by this noble paper. Washi can speak to us; washi will conform to our desires–it is open to the light and it can improvise. Sometimes it offers its fragility, sometimes its sturdiness. Other times it’s like clothes or skin, full of sensuality and flexibility. It can even be a sculptable substance ready to be reformed or reborn. With pigments, its possibilities further expand.

 

Martine laying sheets
Newly formed sheets being stacked (with nothing but a piece of string in between) ready to be pressed before final drying (pic: M. Patoux)

Each sheet is unique and it is very moving.

Martine tanino 2
Tanino san smoothing still-wet sheets of paper onto their final smoothing boards, ready for drying (pic: M. Patoux)

The three months spent learning from Tanino san passed quickly. The more I learned about Washi, the more questions I began to ask. Washi is eternal which gives me time to discover it. I’m barely meeting washi, and it leaves me dreaming for more.

martine fog
Morning time at Tesuki Washi Tanino (pic: M. Patoux)

Written by Martine Patoux

Edited by Edwin Arzeta

From Here to There: Nicholas Cladis on his Papermaking Journey in Japan

My name is Nicholas Cladis. I’m an artist who has lived and worked in Fukui Prefecture, Japan for five years. I make work in Echizen, a region of Japanese papermaking featuring dozens of mills. “Echizen washi” is not a single papermaking company – rather, it is a supportive collective of different mills making a variety of different paper. This variety, and the closeness of the community, are what make it a special place, even among other papermaking areas in Japan.

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Okamoto-Otaki Shrine in winter

Echizen is also the only papermaking region with a papermaking goddess, and a shrine devoted to her (over 1,300 years old). Every May there is a festival, in which we carry the portable shrine around town, from noon until evening, and then ascend the mountain behind the shrine under paper lantern-light. Fukui is known for its beautiful, clean water, which is why paper and sake production have both thrived here.

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Carrying the portable shrine

I have a small studio here where I make paper. I frequently teach workshops and give English-language tours to visiting artists.

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Making paper (nagashizuki style) in Udatsu Craft Center, a local museum that
also doubles as workshop of research, conservation, and traditional paper
manufacture

I’m also currently on the organizing committee for Imadate Art Field, a non-
profit which organizes exhibitions, artist residencies, and educational programs related to paper art (including prints). Perhaps the most well-known event hosted by Imadate Art Field is the Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Paper Art, which last year featured Texas printmakers Juergen Strunck and Jon Lee, and dozens of other artists from around Japan and the world.

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“The Story and the Silence” reading room, 2018, Kozo, hemp, mitsumata, cotton, sumi, found wood, paperclay, stone (Nicholas Cladis; 1 st Prize, 2018 Exhibition of Contemporary Paper Art)

Additionally, I’m an instructor and research fellow at Fukui Prefectural University. Last year I taught a course on paper art to Japanese students.

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Fukui Prefectural University students making large pulp paintings

It’s an exciting time to be part of the Echizen community. There are new connections with global arts communities, and most craftspeople have a sincere interest in learning about art, conservation, and consumers. Echizen may be a center of tradition, but it is also an extremely adaptable community. [This] week, I’ll be at the Southern Graphics Council International (SGCI) conference in Texas to give a washi demonstration. I will be demonstrating two forms of Japanese papermaking: nagashizuki and nagashikomi. I’m also going to be showing some alternative techniques within these forms that have potential printmaking applications. I hope visitors: 1) can develop a starting familiarity with Japanese paper and its underlying culture, and 2) are inspired to use Japanese paper in their work.

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I received my MFA from the University of Dallas in 2013, and studied printmaking at Trinity University in San Antonio several years ago. It will be nice to return to Texas to share some of what I have learned. I hope to see you there.

Big thanks to Hiromi Paper for their support!

Studio Visit: Twigs Fabrics and Wallpaper

Founded in 1973, Twigs Fabrics and Wallpaper specializes in handmade textiles and wallpapers inspired by 18th and 19th century decor. Founder, owner and creative mastermind Arthur Athas embarked on this path in Boston where he was still attending art school. Twigs’ first major project was in 1977, commissioned by The Metropolitan Museum of Art to reproduce “The Monuments of Paris” wallpaper (originally made in early 1800s). The museum requested a panoramic wallpaper to use in their exhibition room, taking a team of artists two years to produce the drawings and over a thousand silkscreens to finish the printing. After many years of working on numerous large scale projects (even at the White House!), Arthur and his partner Rick decided to scale down to a two-person team in their production studio in Culver City.

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“The Monuments of Paris” promotional material

About ten years ago, Arthur began using rolls of Japanese papers for his wallpapers, because of their durability and their texture that adds to Twigs’ handmade feel. By using a paper that is a blend of kozo and cotton/hemp, the paper is strong enough to withstand multiple layers of silkscreen, hand-painting and dyes. Noticeably, there are no machines in the Twigs studio, because no part of their process requires them. The papers or fabrics are laid out on their long tables, where all of the printing, painting and dyeing magic happens. Even the dyes are made by hand in the outdoor patio area, carefully concocted by Rick’s visual senses and 27 years of experience.

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Wall paper hand painted on Japanese paper

Though struggling to adjust to the ever changing tastes and interests in the decor/design realm, Arthur has never let his artistic vision be blurred. He still keeps an aged poster of the Villa Foscari – La Malcontenta (villa near Venice, Italy) on his studio wall, as a constant reminder of what had initially sparked him to start this now niche business. Behind Twigs’ continued success in such a unique market is Arthur’s unwavering vision and passion for art and all things beautiful.

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Hand painted wallpaper on Japanese paper

CyberCopy: Digital Printing on Washi and papers from around the world!

We were recently invited by our new-found neighbors, CyberCopy USA, to challenge their very large flat-bed printer with some of our most robust papers from Japan and around the world. We jumped at the idea of bringing a selection of some of our most traditional papers, which are far from designed for digital printing of any sort, but have always drawn interest for such processes because of their physical appearances. Until now, we have not had luck finding digital printing services who would offer to print on papers with deckle edges, that are extremely thin, or extremely thick.

CyberCopy is comprised of four locations throughout Southern California: Santa Barbara, Ventura, Westlake Village, and headquartered at its Culver City location servicing most of Los Angeles. Each location provides slightly different services, some of which include: fine art reproduction (giclée printing), UV set ink digital printing, CNC routing, laser cutting and etching, museum grade high resolution scanning, and much more! For over twenty years, CyberCopy has accumulated a repertoire of services making them a go-to location for your many art needs.

Mimaki JFX200-2513 Printer

Our challenge, proposed by CyberCopy, was to test the capability of their Mimaki JFX200-2513 wide-format flatbed printer. We provided the following papers: Bhutan Tsharsho (very thick, no sizing, bumpy texture), HP-15 Okawara Machine Made (relatively thin with sizing), HP-58 Sekishu Natural (no sizing, semi light weight), Yatsuo (unsized colored paper), HM-58 Okawara Student, HP-14 Asagami (very thin 13 gsm, very transluscent), and Igarashi Kozo (very thick). The printer has a table top with thousands of small suction holes that hold the substrate in place while printing. Instead of the papers being fed through the printer, there is a sort of “bridge” that moves forward and backward and then its printer head moves side to side. UV-set ink is released from above and instantaneously sets, requiring virtually no drying time or presenting issues of smudging.

Bhutan Natural Dyed Tsharsho Kenpa (beige) This handmade paper is made of fibers from the Edgeworthia plant. Traditionally, this paper could only be printed on via manual methods such as screen or relief printing. Surprisingly, the Mimaki printed without regard for the uneven surface of the paper.

Bhutan Natural Dyed Tsharsho with our papermaking materials descriptions

HP-15, HP-58, HM-58, Igarashi Kozo, and Yatsuo also all printed well. Usually printers are reluctant to print on handmade papers for fear that the softness of the paper and the deckle edges will clog the printer requiring extra maintenance or damage parts.

Pictured here is HM-58 Okawara Student (handmade).
Asagami test sheet from afar

It was, however, HP-14 Asagami which astounded us the most. Clocking in at 13 gsm, Asagami is a very thin, translucent paper which usually would require special handling and care otherwise it could easily tear, crumple up and clog the printer, or pucker while drying. The Mimaki made it possible to print without any of those conditions. The print dried instantly and perfectly flat while producing very sharp images.

Detail of HP-14 Asagami. Translucent even through the ink from the Mimaki

CyberCopy has both a CNC router and Universal Laser Cutter, the latter of which can work with substrates up to 2’x4′ that range from wood, to certain papers and paper like substrates, to acrylic, and can even etch into pastries!

CyberCopy’s laser can etch even the faintest details

Most recently added to CyberCopy’s Culver City location, is their extremely high definition Rencay camera scanner. Oftentimes customers want to be able to digitally reproduce their works on paper, but the result is that the paper itself becomes nothing more than a blob of color. This Camera scanner is capable of quilting together the details of large expansive artworks while retaining the most visible subtle characters of the paper or canvas on which the artwork is made. Additionally, this scanner can travel to your studio! For a video about how the scanner works click this link

CyberCopy Fine Arts Scanning With RENCAY from CyberCopy Fine Arts on Vimeo.

For more information about how your next project can benefit from CyberCopy, please contact Austin at via email: austin@cybercopyusa.com

Hiromi Paper turns 30

Thirty years is but a droplet in the 1,400 year-old slurry of Japanese papermaking history, but when it dawned on Hiromi thirty years ago that there was a need for highly refined, chemical free, archival, strong, handmade papers among conservation specialists in the United States, she used her papermaking training to turn the droplet into a needle point that has helped sew together the history of Japanese papermaking and Art Conservation in the West. By doing so, handmade Japanese paper infiltrated artists’ practices abound. Japanese paper, or washi as we will refer to it hereto forth, was never missing from art or its conservation; before washi was utilized for painting and printmaking by the likes of Chagal, Picasso, and Rembrandt, it was used for specific tasks required by members of Japan’s ruling class, like writing legal documents,

Enchin_decree
Enchin Decree written on Japanese paper during the Heian period ca. 927AD.

manufacturing currency, decor, and architecture, of which many examples still remain. Oftentimes the same or similar paper would be used to patch holes in damaged articles, and in the case of shoji and lanterns, more ornate paper would be used. It is written in The Chronicles of Japan, Nihon Shoki (ca. 720 AD), that the Korean Buddhist priest Doncho introduced Chinese paper and ink making to the people of Japan around the year 610. The Prince Regent at the time found the materials for Chinese

kozo plant
Kozo plant ready for harvest (pic: University of Kentucky Library)

paper too delicate and thus encouraged the shift to Kozo which was already in use by textile makers. The Kozo plant is cultivated throughout Japan and the lower east side of the Asian continent; its fibers, some of the longest plant fibers in papermaking, are also some of the strongest natural fibers suitable for repair work and preservation. Fast forward fourteen-hundred years and Kozo is now the most widely used fiber to make washi and Japan reigns supreme in the world of papermaking for its scrutiny unto itself, consistently producing papers of uniform precision and quality. Over time, washi became readily available and developed alongside calligraphy, Nihonga (Japanese painting), moku-hanga (woodblock printing)–essentially, symbiotically with the culture of Japan.

Satoshi Hasegawa
Satoshi Hasegawa making paper using Nagashizuki method. Nagashizuki is a general term for the process of scooping a sekuta into a vat of fibers, water, and neri to form sheets. Different papermakers have modified the method to suit their papers.

Washi comes in two main forms: machine made and hand made. Fibers and materials for most machine made papers are started using similar methods of the Nagashizuki papermaking style, which requires prepared fibers to be suspended in a water bath to be sort of scooped onto a suketa (paper mould and screen). The maker of one of the most

HP-02 Usu Gami
Hasegawa’s HP-02 Usu Gami (15gsm) Excellent conservation paper also used extensively for hinging and backing artworks.

sought after handmade papers for conservation in the world is Satoshi Hasegawa of Hasegawa Washi Kobo (studio). Famous for their highly coveted Usu Gami series (formerly Usu Mino until relocating from Mino to Yamagata prefecture), Hasegawa uses only the highest quality Japanese Nasu Kozo and the purest processes to prepare the fibers making them perfect for conservation and restoration. Hasegawa Washi’s drying boards–a gift from the late Kozo Furuta-san, the Mino papermaker that taught Hasegawa and Hiromi how to make paper–are made of horse chestnut and are over 150 years old. Usu Gami paper has very long and strong kozo fibers that sometimes course from one end of a sheet to the opposite– an important feature for conservation work.

One example of machine made paper comes from Hidakawashi from Kochi prefecture. Hidakawashi produces some of the thinnest papers in the world with some varieties clocking in at less than 2gsm. While mostly used in conservation, Hidaka’s tengucho/tengujo have been used by artists for a multitude of uses, most impressively: painting, gyotaku, and digital printing. Machinemade paper is characterized (usually) by its cut edges, or its roll format and handmade are characterized by their deckle edges. While machinemade papers are often chided as being inferior to handmade, this is not necessarily true. Machinemade processes allow for a more rapid and more uniform process thus bringing the cost of the paper down however, the quality of the materials used to make the paper are integral to the quality of the paper, thus some handmade papers are made with fibers/pulp that are not on par with some machine made papers. When choosing paper, though, it is important to not conflate quality with appropriateness. Hidakawashi’s Tenguchos for example are high-quality material paper designed with the conservator in mind, however painters and printers have been able to coerce the fibers to react positively to their processes but for most people this will not work, meaning whether a paper is appropriate for a task may lay in the user, and not the paper.

The deception of most washi is that it is delicate, but like the silk line of a spider, it is immensely strong relative to its appearance and the size of its fibers. It’s longevity, color, beauty, and strength has has kept washi around for more than 1,400 years and this is why Hiromi knew 30 years ago, that contemporary users of paper, would find a new medium and a new tool in washi.

Tengucho being rolled
Tengucho paper being rolled at Hidakawashi. Hidaka’s exceptional Tengucho’s thin yet strong nature allows for the gradual layering of the paper to build both body and strength when making repairs or reinforcing materials.

Hasegawa san and Chinzei san will be visiting for our 30th Anniversary Reception and Workshop Extravaganza where they will lead, alongside several papermaker contemporaries from Japan, four casual drop-in paper-related workshops on July 28th. Additionally, both Hasegawa san and Chinzei san are two of the  papermakers invited to Japan Foundation Los Angeles on July 26th, for a special panel on papermaking and its future. For more info about the 30th Anniversary Reception and Workshop, CLICK HERE. For more information about the panel on papermaking CLICK HERE.

Anniversary thingie