In Memory of Artist Akira Kurosaki

Kurosaki portrait
Akira Kurosaki, picture from his book, Shaping Paper
[featured image above is a detail of Kurosaki’s work Atlantic Splashes from 1993]

Akira Kurosaki was born on January 10, 1937 in Manchuria, China, but his family returned to Japan shortly after the Second World War. While a teen, Kurosaki sensei’s father arranged for him to learn painting. It would be his father later who forbade him from pursuing painting as a course of study as he believed art to be financially unstable. With his father’s ruling, Kurosaki sensei studied Design at Kyoto Institute of Technology from which he graduated in 1962. Despite the conflict with his father’s interests, Kurosaki sensei emerged from academia yet an artist.

 

It wasn’t long before Kurosaki sensei became an associate professor at his alma mater, Kyoto Institute of Technology, where he remained until 1968. During his initial stint as professor Kurosaki sensei began creating the first of his abstract and surreal works. These works used the guise of western modes of painting that were in fashion at the time, to create artworks that would explore the psychology of traditions and ideologies of postwar humanity. Navigating printmaking, painting, collage, and eventually papermaking, Kurosaki sensei embarked on a trajectory that would help him carve a career as an innovative artist.

akira kurosaki sagittarius 1973
Sagittarius 1973 color woodblock

In 1987, Kurosaki sensei became professor and head of Printmaking at Kyoto Seika University where he established the department of papermaking. His pioneering work in papermaking art was the catalyst that helped bring papermaking into the realm of fine art, producing works throughout his career and especially the 90s that were simultaneously print and paper. Employing innovative and traditional techniques Kurosaki sensei would often require new or modified tools or designs of his own fashioning to create works.

 

One of his inventions might be familiar to you– in this excerpt, translated by Yuki, Kurosaki sensei writes in his book Shaping Paper, about the purpose behind the development of the Disk Baren:

     As one of the most important tools used in mokuhanga printmaking, high quality barens have a long life span, but on the other hand can be difficult replacing the expendable bamboo sheath core of the baren.
     Wanting a baren that was easier to maintain but still retained the
technical quality of the traditional baren, the disk baren was invented.
     By making a baren out of plastic materials, the quality control is more consistent, parts are easier to replace/repair and the price is more economical.
     The traditional baren core is made from white bamboo sheaths that are twisted then laid down into a circular shape. These sheaths create the bumps which are important in a baren to evenly press the paper into the block . The disk baren accurately recreates these bumps with its plastic core. If the surface begins to wear down, there are replacement disks available.
     Though the plastic core may look simple to the eye, the final product was achieved through many trials and errors to best resemble the texture and composition of the traditional bamboo cores. Although the bumps are laid in a concentric circular pattern, they are not radial but form subtle waves that help to apply even pressure when in use.
Disk_Baren_2_2048x
Bottom of the Disk Baren showing the wavy pattern of the balls

Kurosaki sensei was never one to be held back by lack of capability, nor was he compelled by the impulse to profit. Rather, the sensei’s concerns about the traditional baren stemmed from its impractical inherent qualities–they were inaccessible to most, expensive, and oftentimes burdensome to fix or replace parts. Knowing this, Kurosaki sensei reimagined how the process produced by the baren could be recreated using more accessible means without sacrificing, as he said, “the technical” qualities that make barens so important to mokuhanga. After much testing and consideration for the ability of his new tool, the Disk Baren came to be. Kurosaki sensei showed much respect not only to his own ways of making work but also the way in which those types of work had been made for centuries before him.

 

For years, Kurosaki sensei traveled the world making art, lecturing, and exhibiting, carving for himself a singular career. Finally, though, he settled back down in his hometown of Kyoto, where he passed in May. Our thoughts and best wishes are with Kurosaki sensei’s loved ones.

Kurosaki 1
Green Wind Vane 1991 paper and dye

Book Artist Martine Patoux Interns at Tesuki Washi Tanino

I have been working on and with paper for a long time. I test different techniques with paper to actualize artists’ books often wondering about the life of paper. Washi, one of the most “living” papers, is so generous and amazing, lending itself to my purpose as a bookmaker.

martine 2
Examining the delicate strength of thin washi (pic: M. Patoux)

I wondered, how can I approach paper as a “living” thing so that I can imbue part of me into it. How can I be part of the life of the paper? How can I participate in animating the life of a paper?

Martine Toki River
Toki River running adjacent to Tesuki Washi Tanino (pic: M. Patoux)

I set out to find a workshop in Japan that would welcome me for 3 months, where I could immerse myself in papermaking, from harvesting the fibers to forming and drying the sheets.

 

martine stripping bark
Freshly steamed bark being stripped of the outer layers (pic: M. Patoux)

Mrs. Hiroko Tanino, Washi Master, Tokigawa (Saitama prefecture), opened her doors and welcomed me. We share a love of a paper and the surprises that arise in any situation. We see the beauty of the washi-maker transfer into the beauty of the washi they make. Mrs. and Mr Tanino are both passionate handcrafters working tirelessly to preserve handmade papermaking, as such, they are welcome to ideas and proposals presented to them!

IMG_20171125_120104
Tanino san (left) helping with the kozo harvest (pic: Hiroko Tanino)

My project became to make a book from Washi that was also about Washi, where the texts would be haiku. Through my new experience, Mrs. and Mr. Tanino guided me with their know-how.

martine experiments
Washi making experiments (pic: M. Patoux)

Although I am not able to make a perfect sheet of washi, I discovered the infinite potential offered by this noble paper. Washi can speak to us; washi will conform to our desires–it is open to the light and it can improvise. Sometimes it offers its fragility, sometimes its sturdiness. Other times it’s like clothes or skin, full of sensuality and flexibility. It can even be a sculptable substance ready to be reformed or reborn. With pigments, its possibilities further expand.

 

Martine laying sheets
Newly formed sheets being stacked (with nothing but a piece of string in between) ready to be pressed before final drying (pic: M. Patoux)

Each sheet is unique and it is very moving.

Martine tanino 2
Tanino san smoothing still-wet sheets of paper onto their final smoothing boards, ready for drying (pic: M. Patoux)

The three months spent learning from Tanino san passed quickly. The more I learned about Washi, the more questions I began to ask. Washi is eternal which gives me time to discover it. I’m barely meeting washi, and it leaves me dreaming for more.

martine fog
Morning time at Tesuki Washi Tanino (pic: M. Patoux)

Written by Martine Patoux

Edited by Edwin Arzeta

From Here to There: Nicholas Cladis on his Papermaking Journey in Japan

My name is Nicholas Cladis. I’m an artist who has lived and worked in Fukui Prefecture, Japan for five years. I make work in Echizen, a region of Japanese papermaking featuring dozens of mills. “Echizen washi” is not a single papermaking company – rather, it is a supportive collective of different mills making a variety of different paper. This variety, and the closeness of the community, are what make it a special place, even among other papermaking areas in Japan.

1
Okamoto-Otaki Shrine in winter

Echizen is also the only papermaking region with a papermaking goddess, and a shrine devoted to her (over 1,300 years old). Every May there is a festival, in which we carry the portable shrine around town, from noon until evening, and then ascend the mountain behind the shrine under paper lantern-light. Fukui is known for its beautiful, clean water, which is why paper and sake production have both thrived here.

2
Carrying the portable shrine

I have a small studio here where I make paper. I frequently teach workshops and give English-language tours to visiting artists.

3
Making paper (nagashizuki style) in Udatsu Craft Center, a local museum that
also doubles as workshop of research, conservation, and traditional paper
manufacture

I’m also currently on the organizing committee for Imadate Art Field, a non-
profit which organizes exhibitions, artist residencies, and educational programs related to paper art (including prints). Perhaps the most well-known event hosted by Imadate Art Field is the Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Paper Art, which last year featured Texas printmakers Juergen Strunck and Jon Lee, and dozens of other artists from around Japan and the world.

4
“The Story and the Silence” reading room, 2018, Kozo, hemp, mitsumata, cotton, sumi, found wood, paperclay, stone (Nicholas Cladis; 1 st Prize, 2018 Exhibition of Contemporary Paper Art)

Additionally, I’m an instructor and research fellow at Fukui Prefectural University. Last year I taught a course on paper art to Japanese students.

dav
Fukui Prefectural University students making large pulp paintings

It’s an exciting time to be part of the Echizen community. There are new connections with global arts communities, and most craftspeople have a sincere interest in learning about art, conservation, and consumers. Echizen may be a center of tradition, but it is also an extremely adaptable community. [This] week, I’ll be at the Southern Graphics Council International (SGCI) conference in Texas to give a washi demonstration. I will be demonstrating two forms of Japanese papermaking: nagashizuki and nagashikomi. I’m also going to be showing some alternative techniques within these forms that have potential printmaking applications. I hope visitors: 1) can develop a starting familiarity with Japanese paper and its underlying culture, and 2) are inspired to use Japanese paper in their work.

6

I received my MFA from the University of Dallas in 2013, and studied printmaking at Trinity University in San Antonio several years ago. It will be nice to return to Texas to share some of what I have learned. I hope to see you there.

Big thanks to Hiromi Paper for their support!

Studio Visit: Twigs Fabrics and Wallpaper

Founded in 1973, Twigs Fabrics and Wallpaper specializes in handmade textiles and wallpapers inspired by 18th and 19th century decor. Founder, owner and creative mastermind Arthur Athas embarked on this path in Boston where he was still attending art school. Twigs’ first major project was in 1977, commissioned by The Metropolitan Museum of Art to reproduce “The Monuments of Paris” wallpaper (originally made in early 1800s). The museum requested a panoramic wallpaper to use in their exhibition room, taking a team of artists two years to produce the drawings and over a thousand silkscreens to finish the printing. After many years of working on numerous large scale projects (even at the White House!), Arthur and his partner Rick decided to scale down to a two-person team in their production studio in Culver City.

img_8999
“The Monuments of Paris” promotional material

About ten years ago, Arthur began using rolls of Japanese papers for his wallpapers, because of their durability and their texture that adds to Twigs’ handmade feel. By using a paper that is a blend of kozo and cotton/hemp, the paper is strong enough to withstand multiple layers of silkscreen, hand-painting and dyes. Noticeably, there are no machines in the Twigs studio, because no part of their process requires them. The papers or fabrics are laid out on their long tables, where all of the printing, painting and dyeing magic happens. Even the dyes are made by hand in the outdoor patio area, carefully concocted by Rick’s visual senses and 27 years of experience.

img_8992
Wall paper hand painted on Japanese paper

Though struggling to adjust to the ever changing tastes and interests in the decor/design realm, Arthur has never let his artistic vision be blurred. He still keeps an aged poster of the Villa Foscari – La Malcontenta (villa near Venice, Italy) on his studio wall, as a constant reminder of what had initially sparked him to start this now niche business. Behind Twigs’ continued success in such a unique market is Arthur’s unwavering vision and passion for art and all things beautiful.

img_9004
Hand painted wallpaper on Japanese paper

CyberCopy: Digital Printing on Washi and papers from around the world!

We were recently invited by our new-found neighbors, CyberCopy USA, to challenge their very large flat-bed printer with some of our most robust papers from Japan and around the world. We jumped at the idea of bringing a selection of some of our most traditional papers, which are far from designed for digital printing of any sort, but have always drawn interest for such processes because of their physical appearances. Until now, we have not had luck finding digital printing services who would offer to print on papers with deckle edges, that are extremely thin, or extremely thick.

CyberCopy is comprised of four locations throughout Southern California: Santa Barbara, Ventura, Westlake Village, and headquartered at its Culver City location servicing most of Los Angeles. Each location provides slightly different services, some of which include: fine art reproduction (giclée printing), UV set ink digital printing, CNC routing, laser cutting and etching, museum grade high resolution scanning, and much more! For over twenty years, CyberCopy has accumulated a repertoire of services making them a go-to location for your many art needs.

Mimaki JFX200-2513 Printer

Our challenge, proposed by CyberCopy, was to test the capability of their Mimaki JFX200-2513 wide-format flatbed printer. We provided the following papers: Bhutan Tsharsho (very thick, no sizing, bumpy texture), HP-15 Okawara Machine Made (relatively thin with sizing), HP-58 Sekishu Natural (no sizing, semi light weight), Yatsuo (unsized colored paper), HM-58 Okawara Student, HP-14 Asagami (very thin 13 gsm, very transluscent), and Igarashi Kozo (very thick). The printer has a table top with thousands of small suction holes that hold the substrate in place while printing. Instead of the papers being fed through the printer, there is a sort of “bridge” that moves forward and backward and then its printer head moves side to side. UV-set ink is released from above and instantaneously sets, requiring virtually no drying time or presenting issues of smudging.

Bhutan Natural Dyed Tsharsho Kenpa (beige) This handmade paper is made of fibers from the Edgeworthia plant. Traditionally, this paper could only be printed on via manual methods such as screen or relief printing. Surprisingly, the Mimaki printed without regard for the uneven surface of the paper.

Bhutan Natural Dyed Tsharsho with our papermaking materials descriptions

HP-15, HP-58, HM-58, Igarashi Kozo, and Yatsuo also all printed well. Usually printers are reluctant to print on handmade papers for fear that the softness of the paper and the deckle edges will clog the printer requiring extra maintenance or damage parts.

Pictured here is HM-58 Okawara Student (handmade).
Asagami test sheet from afar

It was, however, HP-14 Asagami which astounded us the most. Clocking in at 13 gsm, Asagami is a very thin, translucent paper which usually would require special handling and care otherwise it could easily tear, crumple up and clog the printer, or pucker while drying. The Mimaki made it possible to print without any of those conditions. The print dried instantly and perfectly flat while producing very sharp images.

Detail of HP-14 Asagami. Translucent even through the ink from the Mimaki

CyberCopy has both a CNC router and Universal Laser Cutter, the latter of which can work with substrates up to 2’x4′ that range from wood, to certain papers and paper like substrates, to acrylic, and can even etch into pastries!

CyberCopy’s laser can etch even the faintest details

Most recently added to CyberCopy’s Culver City location, is their extremely high definition Rencay camera scanner. Oftentimes customers want to be able to digitally reproduce their works on paper, but the result is that the paper itself becomes nothing more than a blob of color. This Camera scanner is capable of quilting together the details of large expansive artworks while retaining the most visible subtle characters of the paper or canvas on which the artwork is made. Additionally, this scanner can travel to your studio! For a video about how the scanner works click this link

CyberCopy Fine Arts Scanning With RENCAY from CyberCopy Fine Arts on Vimeo.

For more information about how your next project can benefit from CyberCopy, please contact Austin at via email: austin@cybercopyusa.com

Hiromi Paper turns 30

Thirty years is but a droplet in the 1,400 year-old slurry of Japanese papermaking history, but when it dawned on Hiromi thirty years ago that there was a need for highly refined, chemical free, archival, strong, handmade papers among conservation specialists in the United States, she used her papermaking training to turn the droplet into a needle point that has helped sew together the history of Japanese papermaking and Art Conservation in the West. By doing so, handmade Japanese paper infiltrated artists’ practices abound. Japanese paper, or washi as we will refer to it hereto forth, was never missing from art or its conservation; before washi was utilized for painting and printmaking by the likes of Chagal, Picasso, and Rembrandt, it was used for specific tasks required by members of Japan’s ruling class, like writing legal documents,

Enchin_decree
Enchin Decree written on Japanese paper during the Heian period ca. 927AD.

manufacturing currency, decor, and architecture, of which many examples still remain. Oftentimes the same or similar paper would be used to patch holes in damaged articles, and in the case of shoji and lanterns, more ornate paper would be used. It is written in The Chronicles of Japan, Nihon Shoki (ca. 720 AD), that the Korean Buddhist priest Doncho introduced Chinese paper and ink making to the people of Japan around the year 610. The Prince Regent at the time found the materials for Chinese

kozo plant
Kozo plant ready for harvest (pic: University of Kentucky Library)

paper too delicate and thus encouraged the shift to Kozo which was already in use by textile makers. The Kozo plant is cultivated throughout Japan and the lower east side of the Asian continent; its fibers, some of the longest plant fibers in papermaking, are also some of the strongest natural fibers suitable for repair work and preservation. Fast forward fourteen-hundred years and Kozo is now the most widely used fiber to make washi and Japan reigns supreme in the world of papermaking for its scrutiny unto itself, consistently producing papers of uniform precision and quality. Over time, washi became readily available and developed alongside calligraphy, Nihonga (Japanese painting), moku-hanga (woodblock printing)–essentially, symbiotically with the culture of Japan.

Satoshi Hasegawa
Satoshi Hasegawa making paper using Nagashizuki method. Nagashizuki is a general term for the process of scooping a sekuta into a vat of fibers, water, and neri to form sheets. Different papermakers have modified the method to suit their papers.

Washi comes in two main forms: machine made and hand made. Fibers and materials for most machine made papers are started using similar methods of the Nagashizuki papermaking style, which requires prepared fibers to be suspended in a water bath to be sort of scooped onto a suketa (paper mould and screen). The maker of one of the most

HP-02 Usu Gami
Hasegawa’s HP-02 Usu Gami (15gsm) Excellent conservation paper also used extensively for hinging and backing artworks.

sought after handmade papers for conservation in the world is Satoshi Hasegawa of Hasegawa Washi Kobo (studio). Famous for their highly coveted Usu Gami series (formerly Usu Mino until relocating from Mino to Yamagata prefecture), Hasegawa uses only the highest quality Japanese Nasu Kozo and the purest processes to prepare the fibers making them perfect for conservation and restoration. Hasegawa Washi’s drying boards–a gift from the late Kozo Furuta-san, the Mino papermaker that taught Hasegawa and Hiromi how to make paper–are made of horse chestnut and are over 150 years old. Usu Gami paper has very long and strong kozo fibers that sometimes course from one end of a sheet to the opposite– an important feature for conservation work.

One example of machine made paper comes from Hidakawashi from Kochi prefecture. Hidakawashi produces some of the thinnest papers in the world with some varieties clocking in at less than 2gsm. While mostly used in conservation, Hidaka’s tengucho/tengujo have been used by artists for a multitude of uses, most impressively: painting, gyotaku, and digital printing. Machinemade paper is characterized (usually) by its cut edges, or its roll format and handmade are characterized by their deckle edges. While machinemade papers are often chided as being inferior to handmade, this is not necessarily true. Machinemade processes allow for a more rapid and more uniform process thus bringing the cost of the paper down however, the quality of the materials used to make the paper are integral to the quality of the paper, thus some handmade papers are made with fibers/pulp that are not on par with some machine made papers. When choosing paper, though, it is important to not conflate quality with appropriateness. Hidakawashi’s Tenguchos for example are high-quality material paper designed with the conservator in mind, however painters and printers have been able to coerce the fibers to react positively to their processes but for most people this will not work, meaning whether a paper is appropriate for a task may lay in the user, and not the paper.

The deception of most washi is that it is delicate, but like the silk line of a spider, it is immensely strong relative to its appearance and the size of its fibers. It’s longevity, color, beauty, and strength has has kept washi around for more than 1,400 years and this is why Hiromi knew 30 years ago, that contemporary users of paper, would find a new medium and a new tool in washi.

Tengucho being rolled
Tengucho paper being rolled at Hidakawashi. Hidaka’s exceptional Tengucho’s thin yet strong nature allows for the gradual layering of the paper to build both body and strength when making repairs or reinforcing materials.

Hasegawa san and Chinzei san will be visiting for our 30th Anniversary Reception and Workshop Extravaganza where they will lead, alongside several papermaker contemporaries from Japan, four casual drop-in paper-related workshops on July 28th. Additionally, both Hasegawa san and Chinzei san are two of the  papermakers invited to Japan Foundation Los Angeles on July 26th, for a special panel on papermaking and its future. For more info about the 30th Anniversary Reception and Workshop, CLICK HERE. For more information about the panel on papermaking CLICK HERE.

Anniversary thingie

Artist Spotlight: Sandy Rodriguez and Amate Paper

Sandy
Sandy in her studio with her recent harvest. Works on Amate paper in the background.

Sandy Rodriguezgranted me the opportunity to visit her studio, or rather “test kitchen”, in MarVista, CA. Rodriguez is a long-time Hiromi Paper, Inc. customer who is always enthusiastic about paper and cognizant of the cultural affects of materials on an oeuvre or body of work. Sandy processes a range of organic colorants and earth pigments into inks & watercolors that are then worked onto the Amate paper via pens and brushes. To acquire the necessary ingredients to for the recipes, Rodriguez conducts expeditions into the wildernesses of the the Western United States with Blue Wind School of Botanical Studies and then cross references specimens with contemporary art history of Americas. Some materials that Rodriguez hand processes are native mushrooms, lichens, bark, seeds and insects that have been used for color for generations in the Americas.

Indian_collecting_cochineal
Indian Collecting Cochineal By José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1737 – 1799). – Newberry Library: Vault Ayer MS 1031, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7722675

Each plant, insect matter, or mineral contains its own properties, uses and histories. For instance, one of the few ingredients that the artist does not forage herself is the insect cochineal which makes its home on the nopales (prickly pear cactus) of Mexico and California, naturally produces a red carminic acid which makes them undesirable to prey. This same acid when properly processed produces a rich red pigment which can be used to for dyes and paints. In fact, as Sandy recounted, the same pigment became a very valuable commodity and was used to dye the redcoats that the British forces donned during the American Revolutionary War. Today, most artists are familiar with the color carmine red derived from the carminic acid of the cochineal.

The surface that Rodriguez gravitates towards is Mexican Amate bark paper, with roots reaching to precolonial times. Although it is unknown when or where in Mesoamerica paper making began, the oldest known piece of Amate paper dates back to 75 CE (that’s about 1,943 years ago!). Once practiced throughout Mexico, the process of making Amate paper was nearly lost post colonial contact as it became banned from practice due to its association with the indigenous ceremonial practices decried by colonizers. Now only several paper making villages remain in the Puebla area of Mexico. Of course this is only a glossed over history of the Amate, but one can see that easily its history is rich and fertile with exploration as it relates to the themes that course throughout Rodriguez’s work.

B3E603EB-BDF8-4274-A9F7-2CC446E955AD (2)

In her work Rodriguez explores ideas of cultivation in terms of culture and materiality, as well as historiography. In De Las Señales y Pronosticós & I.C.E. Raids de Califas, 2018 (Pictured left), Rodriguez’s pigments dance on the surface and in the fibers of a LARGE Amate paper–at times dancing with the darker fig fibers. In other parts of the painting, the Amate becomes both land and sky, a place to describe where its own history stems from and where history is currently moving towards. It reflects the past and the present simultaneously the way an iridescent metal gleams with different colors at the same time. The eye looks at the storyboarded images on the top and the right side of the painting but the texture and fibers of the paper come through to carry us away into the skull  helicopter (Calavera Copter) that then flies over the the land and the sea and the sky and history that once belonged to those who are being told to go back to where they come from, despite already being there.

Don’t forget to catch up with Sandy at the following Summer Talks and Workshops!

June 2, 2018 @ 1:00 P.m.
13031 Montana Avenue (at 26th St)
Los Angeles, CA 90049-4891
June 3, 2018  @ 2:00 p.m.
Hauser & Wirth
901 East 3rd Street, Los Angeles CA 90013